Midterm Abstracts

Author: Frank LaBanca, Ed.D.
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Please post your abstract of your research here for your classmates to view and analyze in preparation for the MidTerm Oral Exam.

The abstract should be succinct, proofed, and between 200-300 words. Post your abstract here so other students may read it to prepare questions for your oral exam on January 22nd.Your exam grade will be based on:

 1.) your written abstract
2.) your responses to student questions
3.) questions you ask other students

Use the following links and samples to assist in producing a high-quality abstract.

 Writing an abstract. Click here

 Practical Tips for Science Writing. Click here

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39 Responses to “Midterm Abstracts”

  1. Emily S Says:

    An effective method for encapsulating Vitamin E in a film was tested for the treatment of topical blisters. Vitamin E is a natural solution for skin treatment that is easily available. Alginate films are nontoxic and relatively simple to make out of a simple sodium alginate and calcium chloride combined procedure. Vitamin E is fat-soluble, making the commonly used method for making alginate films impossible based on the reliance that the film contains a water-soluble chemical solution. 2% by weight sodium alginate solution is mixed with 24% methyl cellulose solution to create a solution. 36% by weight Vitamin E oil is added to the previous solution to produce an emulsified phase using high speed mechanical magnetic stirring. The emulsion is put in a syringe as means of filtering, and 2 microliters of the emulsion is dropped over 2.5% by weight calcium chloride in methanol on slide and an additional glass slide is put on top of the alginate and calcium chloride solution immediately after combination set to polymerize. In order to quantify the Vitamin E that diffused through the dialysis tubing, an HPLC procedure was utilized. An isocratic procedure with a 2 ml/min flow rate was used. The mobile phase was 95% hexane and 5% chloroform. The stationary phase was a 15C silica column. Fluorescent detection at 335 nm was used (Perkin Elmer, 1996). Standards of 10ug/ml, 5 ug/ml, 2.5 ug/ml, and 1.25 ug/ml were used to make the standard curve. The samples came off the column at approximately 1.5 minutes.

  2. Tyler W. Says:

    Superconductors are materials which conduct electricity with zero resistance. These materials can be applied to create faster and more efficient computer circuitry. However, in order for superconductors to achieve a superconducting state, they must reach very cold temperatures, nearing absolute zero. This presents an issue in that the cooling mechanisms to create a superconductor are often so difficult to build that it outweighs the positive outcomes of using superconductors. It may be possible to cool materials more efficiently in a vacuum, though there has not been any prior evidence proving or disproving this theory. A liquid cooling system will be used to cool a computer inside a vacuum. As the machine runs, the core temperature of the processor will be measured. If the cooling system can reduce heat at a greater rate and/or amount inside the vacuum, as opposed to normal pressure, it can be concluded that cooling is more efficient inside a vacuum. Thus, it would be possible to use less powerful and energy-demanding cooling systems to cool the computer to superconductive temperatures.

    (Dr. LaBanca, can I speak with you about improving my abstract? I feel like it lacks substance, but I cannot figure out what to add to it).

  3. Stephanie V Says:

    Permanent magnets are magnets that will always have a magnetic field. I will use a permanent ring magnet in order to build the self-sustaining magnetic generator. The ring magnet will be used so that the magnets can be strung through a copper or plastic pipe. These magnets will not touch one another or the pipe because they will be placed with like poles against each other. Each magnet has a north pole and a south pole. So the magnets will be placed as so: north/south, south/north, north/south, etc. A surge of electricity from a 6 volt battery will flow through the pipe. Once this happens, the magnets will begin to spin around the pipe. The electricity can be then turned off, but the magnets won’t stop spinning. This is because the magnetic field they generate from the motion is enough to keep them spinning. Since they will spin with no excess force, they create energy. This energy will be transported through a circuit to a source, such as a light bulb. This circuit will consist of a parallel circuit because I am going to eventually add multiple light bulbs to see how many light bulbs the generator can power. I will use a watt-hour meter to measure the amount of electricity this machine generates.

  4. Alicja Z. Says:

    During the first half hour of their lives, neonates lose body heat rapidly. Promoting heat retention as well as allowing heat to reach the baby would benefit and help initiate neonatal thermoregulation earlier. There is limited research on alternative materials for effective thermoregulation of neonates. Prior to being placed under a radiant heater or incubator, babies are wrapped in a, typically cotton, blanket. The blanket not only provides the baby with comfort, but also helps it minimally retain heat and allow heat to permeate the surface. Emergency foil or Mylar blankets retain heat completely, but do not allow heat to penetrate them. Testing the normal blankets and the emergency blankets will provide for a temperature range to achieve better regulation of heat. In other words, an ideal amount of heat being lost per minute that will promote neonatal thermoregulation while at the same time allow the neonate to lose a little bit of heat to further encourage the regulation of body heat. Through the interweaving of the cotton and the Mylar blankets, a more efficient temperature control will be established. The foil blanket will retain the heat, and the cotton blanket should allow heat in, providing for a balance that will promote neonatal thermoregulation during the first half hour of life. The ability to hasten the regulation of heat loss and heat gain will efficiently higher the chances of the survival of the neonate.

  5. Jared S. Says:

    NAME: Schulman, Jared A.
    HOME ADDRESS: 13 Old Farm Rd., Oxford, Connecticut 06478
    SCHOOL: Oxford High School
    TEACHER/MENTOR: Dr. Frank LaBanca
    TITLE: Protein Mutations in Agricultural Maize

    Throughout the past 20 years, the field of biologically enhanced agriculture through genetic mutation has experienced a steady climb. The most “tainted” crop affected by this steady climb is corn also known as maize. A staple food, not only in the U.S., but the entire world, maize comprises almost 2/5 of the average adult’s food intake. In addition to individual consumption, Corn has also been called a staple in worldwide economy, with corn derivatives being found in almost all processed and/or prepackaged food. In fact, if you were to look in your pantry right now, chances are that most of the boxed goods have “Corn _____” written in the ingredients section of the nutrition label.
    Combine the massive economical support provided by maize with the new-wave of organic living, and there is definite potential for the birth of an extremely successful “super-crop”.
    But what if the so called organic maize sold to unknowing consumers wasn’t actually organic? My research project is focused on determining the true status of commercial maize, is it organic or not.
    The main genetic mutation which is seen in falsely marked batches of agricultural maize is the use of the GB14 protein, a synthetically birthed biological modifier created naturally in maize crops through the synthetic activation of a certain gene T987. The protein, originally produced by Bayer Labs Inc. was never intended to be released in to mainstream commerce, nor was it authorized to be sold commercially by the FDA.
    The protein is used to increase crop hardiness and reduce, not abolish the use of pesticides. The use of the artificial protein, however, renders corn comprised of it, inorganic – regardless of the exclusion of pesticides enabled by its use. The original corn genome has been altered, therefore rendering it in-organic; not to mention un-stable.
    Through the use of PCR testing, or Polymerase Chain Reaction testing, I will attempt to isolate the GB14 protein in 5 samples of maize collected from within 15 miles of the base of research, Oxford High School. All collection sites will be local farms selling corn which is claimed to be organic. In doing so, I will attempt to prove the corn sold to consumers by the local farms which has been labeled as organic is actually inorganic.
    Support for research provided by Oxford High School.

  6. Dan S. Says:

    Tendons are the connective fascia linking muscles to bones and cartilage. They are composed of mostly tenocytes and collagen I. However, since they receive little blood and nutrition, they are likely to be strained and sometimes ruptured. Current research on regrowth of tendons is limited to tendon cell cultures, which allow for advancement of studies, however, on a smaller scale. Research done currently is on incubating tendon cell cultures to measure the amount of recovery, differences in material quality upon recovery, and factors that improve both of those studies. It may be possible to incubate tendons on a full scale to test factors in a more real life setting while avoiding the risk of performing on a person who might be injured by the experimentation. This project will test an environment and nutrition for chicken tendons, which are similar to those of humans, for sustainability of life in the tendons and growth in wounds. The tendons will be tested in a carbon dioxide rich atmosphere and poor oxygen to prevent growth of bacteria. A uniform incision will be made in all experiments, and growth throughout the incision will be measured.

  7. Caitlin O. Says:

    Innovative alternative energy sources are necessary for a planet that has ever-increasing power consumption requirements. Of particular interest is the development of biologically-based strategies. The overarching purpose of this project is to develop a genetically-engineered E. coli plasmid that would convert carbon dioxide to methanol, potentially providing a renewable carbon neutral energy source. Phase I of this project, presented here, is to develop a metabolic auxotroph that eliminates fermentative (anaerobic) pathways in E. coli. E. coli were irradiated with short wave ultraviolet light to induce mutation, and a phenol red indication method was developed. The novel method was color-based and mutants unable to survive without oxygen were selected.

  8. Joe B Says:

    Arsenic is a natural occurring mineral found in soil, bedrock and water. It is used to preserve wood, to make glass and also used to make other medals. It has no odor or taste and is very poisonous, it is in soil around wells and gets into drinking water wells that poisons anyone who drinks the water contaminated with it. The purpose of this project is to develop a working, and cheap water filter using charcoal and a sand/iron mixture to remediate the arsenic levels in water to make the water safe for drinking use. Safe arsenic consumption levels are lower than 10ppb (parts per billion) the water used to test the filter has arsenic levels over 500ppb. The filter is a two step filter system that is constructed out of PVC, the first step is 300gs of charcoal then the water runs down to a sheet of fiberglass screen then to the sand/iron mixture that is 300gs of sand and 6 iron tablets broken up and mixed in with the sand, then to another sheet of fiberglass screen then the water goes into a large beaker to collect the water.

  9. Amy P. Says:

    One consistently increasing problem in our country today is the lack of quality put into manufactured goods. An example of this is seen in many food products sold commercially such as foods containing probiotics. Our country, among many others, has set an absurdly low standard for evaluating and testing probiotic foods on the market today. Therefore something needs to be done to be able to prove to consumers that they are not just paying for the supposed ingredients in a product; but that they are indeed there. My project is to test for the presence, and quantity, of probiotics in a designated food product said to contain an abundance of probiotics (yogurt, frozen yogurt). I will carry-out this experiment by placing a color indicator in the food sample which will turn green to indicate lactic acid – formed when probiotics are present in the food. From here I will find the amount of probiotics at the start of experimentation and then use this as a control for the testing. After I have an idea of the amount at the start, the sample will undergo an environmental change (extreme heat or cold, centrifugation). After the sample has undergone this environmental change I will test again for the amount of probiotics available in the food sample. This testing will be beneficial because it has a practical application in identifying the viability of probiotics in a food product after it has undergone environmental changes, similar to those it will encounter during manufacturing. From here, consumers will be able to purchase products based on the true amount of probiotics available to them and not just by the fancy advertising the companies can do. Being able to know this information will allow the consumers to purchase products based on the amount of probiotic intake they need for the various benefits probiotics contain.

  10. Joe G Says:

    One current subject that is yet to be completely proven is the existence of muscle memory and the full functions it encompasses. An area where muscle memory could especially be utilized is in the sport of basketball. Muscle memory can be applied towards a player’s shot with the aid of a basketball training apparatus. Testing for my project will consist of using the Sharp Shooter® to guide the subjects when shooting a basketball. I will then monitor the amount of shots made, out of fifty shots taken, for a period of three days using two cameras at different angles. With the video footage, I will be able to use the t-test equation to find the best possible angle for the ball to go through the net at. Also, with this footage I will be able to examine if the subject’s elbow placement has been corrected with the use of the Sharp Shooter®. If the Sharp Shooter® is successful in creating muscle memory, it can be used to help correct the form of basketball players across the globe.

  11. Kathleen M Says:

    The LL601 rice is a variety developed by Bayer Crop Science in the late 1990’s. This variety was engineered, by Bayer Crop Science, to be tolerant to Liberty Link herbicide. The DNA of the LL601 variety contains a bacterial gene which creates phosphinothricin acetyl transferase proteins. The PAT proteins provide the rice with resistance to glufosinate ammonium, the active ingredient in the Liberty Link herbicide. In 2006, this experimental variety of rice contaminated the supply of commercial rice within the United States. After the contamination scare, LL601 rice was never deregulated.
    This study investiges whether or not the LL601 rice is still within the commercial supply of rice within the country. Samples of the LL601 rice, a negative control (water), and a specimen of rice which will be determined either LL601 negative or positive will be collected. After DNA extraction, each of the samples will go through PCR, polymer chain reaction. To start the PCR, certain primers must be added to each of the samples. The primers will target the desired DNA sequence, the PAT gene, and amplify it. Once PCR is complete, the results can be further analyzed through electrophoresis.
    Each sample will create a distinct pattern within the agarose gel in the electrophoresis device. If the pattern of the unknown rice sample is similar to the pattern of the positive control, then the unknown rice sample contains the LL601 modified gene. If the pattern of the unknown rice sample is similar to the pattern of the negative control, then the unknown rice does not contain the LL601 strand.
    If the sample of rice does, indeed, contain the LL601 gene then the ability of the community to keep experimental crops separate from those grown for human consumption must be questioned. However, if the test is negative, it is possible to assume that the LL601 rice is out of the circulation. Thus, consumers would not be consuming an experimental variety of rice.

  12. Gannon F Says:

    This project deals with using piezoelectric crystals to create a form of alternative energy. Piezoelectric materials are sensitive to mechanical energy, such as tension and compression, as well as acoustic energy. When mechanical energy is applied to the piezos, all of the crystal’s many dipoles are polarized into one specific direction, thus creating an electrical charge. The piezo materials could be used to charge batteries with the correct components in between. The component most helpful in this situation is a switch-mode power converter. There are two significant types of power converters. A linear power converter consists of a power source, a switch, and an inductor, which is a conductive coil of wire used to step up or step down current. When the switch is closed, the power runs through the circuit, namely the inductor. The inductor heats up, though, and power is lost in the form of that heat. The second converter is a switch-mode power converter. In the vast science of power conversion, there are two significant rules. Rule number one is that capacitors cannot instantaneously lose voltage. Rule number two, which is the relevant rule to the converter being used, is that inductors cannot lose current instantaneously. In a converter, when the switch is closed and opened, current runs through the inductor, and then it stops. Because the inductor cannot instantaneously lose current, that current converts to a quick and sharp voltage spike. This is the foundation of the switch-mode converter. In the converter, the switch opens in closes rapidly, sometimes hundreds of times per second, and the voltage jump is harnessed for power. It is more efficient because there is no heat loss and the voltage jump is very high. In the project, this, combined with the clean piezo power source, an alternative energy source will be created.

  13. Charles W Says:

    Carbon nanotubes were discovered back in 1991 and since have been discovered to have amazing properties, ones which, for their relative size, should not exist. They have high tensile strength as well as high conductivity. Some of the issues of making carbon nanotubes is manufacturing them to certain specifications, such as length, size, diameter, etc. One type of carbon nanotube is the carbon nanotube spring. It is a carbon nanotube that has been made into a coil shape. These carbon nanotube springs have some of the highest storage capabilities and, if manufactured correctly, could be the next source of convenient energy storage. The point of my project is to design a replicable procedure to make carbon nanotube springs and, if time permits, to try and store energy within the carbon nanotube springs. A technique called Chemical Vapor Deposition will be used to manufacture the nanotube springs and SEM will be used to view the springs up close. Since these springs will be so small, it will be hard to observe them without SEM. After the springs themselves have been created, separation will be a key part of the project. Once these steps have been completed, a charge will be applied to the nanotube springs to see how well they can conduct energy as well as store it.

  14. David S. Says:

    Biodiesel is becoming more popular because of its environmental benefits, oil fueling high prices, and over use and unavailability. This project is aimed toward producing Biodiesel as a multiuse fuel; some of these uses include home heating systems and a variety of engines that power cars, boats, tractors, and other farm equipment. Methodology of producing this fuel includes transesterification of a fatty acid carbon source using genetically modified bacteria. The genetically modified bacteria produce the enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and an unspecific acyltransferase to catalyze the biodiesel formation. The project was sought to optimize a biofermentation protocol. For measuring the effectiveness of the produced fuel TLC, Think Layer Chromatography was used. Data indicated that a modified agitation growth fermentation method produced significantly higher quantity of biodiesel than the controlled fermentation method. For fuel separation a rotavap is going to be used, a rotavap uses evaporation to separate.

  15. David T. Says:

    The video game industry is becoming more and more widespread as technology advances. This project is being is being done not because of its scientific application but in order to further my knowledge in a subject that interests me. The plan is to learn to use design software and other computer programs that deal with game art and design. There are many free versions of design software on the internet and the plan is to practice with the best that can be found and present the results of what was learned. This is more of a learning experience rather than a project that can be presented at a science fair and will be treated as such. It is within my interest to learn how to use this in a future career and I find this a more direct way of learning this subject. It is my hope to use the remainder of this class in order to learn more about the gaming industry and to further my knowledge in game art and the requirements needed to excel in this growing industry before entering college with basically no prior hands-on knowledge of the subject at all.

  16. Amanda W. Says:

    The average person consumes fifty one pounds of pork a year, ranking it the third highest consumed meat in the United States. With the demand for pork being so high small family based farms are unable to sustain it, this has lead to the new age industrial agriculture. Industrial agriculture started in the 1970’s and is now the primary source that America’s meat comes from, the number of animals at one site can number in the tens of thousands. The problem with industrial agriculture, specifically swine, is the large amount of excrement’s that are produced from the animals. The animal waste is stored in cement lagoons acres large. There are numerous documented cases of lagoon ruptures or natural disasters that cause the excrements to leak into water sources, causing detrimental severe environmental harm. Cases include a rupture in North Carolina that was responsible for 14 million aquatic animal deaths and contamination of a public water sources. A hypothesized procedure has been created to prevent such severe damage if a lagoon is to be ruptured. A pump placed inside of the tank will allow for proper oxidization of the lagoon.

  17. Brian B. Says:

    The diffraction of light occurs when light bends around objects that are in their way. The project I will be conducting is the process of laser light passing through copper sulfate crystals. In this project I will be looking to see if copper sulfate crystals will cause laser to diffract. In order to see if the light diffracts I will be creating my own (quality) copper sulfate crystals ( they will be created by mixing water and copper sulfate into a super-saturated solution and then left for crystals to form). Once created the crystals are to be taken into a dark area, anywhere from a dark room with no windows to a small dark box. The Helium: Neon laser light will then be shined through the crystal; if any of the lasers light is diffracted I will be able to tell because the light that changes direction will appear on the dark surfaces around it. If the light is diffracted I will then be testing to see if it is possible to control the way the light is diffracted.

  18. Skyler W. Says:

    Everything in the universe consists of matter that is held together by different forces. These forms of energy have individual set of principles which describe how they behave according to nature. These laws of the mechanics of the cosmos are complex, yet some concepts that are difficult to grasp can be simplified for better comprehension. The general theory of relativity and the principles of quantum mechanics are the two theories that describe the forces of the universe. The general theory of relativity characterizes the technicalities of matter on the largest proportions; it describes forces such as gravity in relation to objects on the cosmic scale. Quantum mechanics, however, describe how substances work on the atomic level. These two principles are accurate, but they are inconsistent when compared. The laws that describe the forces in general relativity are no longer true when applied to molecular objects, and vice versa. Although these two theories conflict when compared, they are still accurate and are used today to describe the behavior of the different forces that create objects to act the way they do. General relativity illustrates the framework and creation of the universe and the important role gravity takes in every matter such as the shape of space, light, and time. Quantum mechanics help define the counterparts that complete the whole picture; every electrical impulse behind a tiny particle that makes up the earth and the space around it give scientists a better understanding of the phenomena that occur on a day to day basis. The concept of these controversial theories can be simplified to help people grasp the ideas presented and see the mathematical elegance of the universe that is undervalued.

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