Permanent magnets are magnets that will always have a magnetic field. A permanent ring magnet will be used in order to build the self-sustaining magnetic generator. The ring magnet will be used so that the magnets can be strung through a copper or plastic pipe. These magnets will not touch one another or the pipe because they will be placed with like poles against each other. Each magnet has a north pole and a south pole. So the magnets will be placed as so: north/south, south/north, north/south, etc. A surge of electricity from a 12 volt battery will flow through an electromagnetic that will surround the metal pipe with the permanent magnets inside. This electromagnetic is made by coiling wire around a two foot long metal pipe with a diameter of two inches. Once the battery is turned on, the magnets will begin to spin around the pipe. The electricity can be then turned off, but the magnets won’t stop spinning. This is because the magnetic field they generate from the motion is enough to keep them spinning. Since they will spin with no excess force, they create energy. This energy will be transported through a circuit to a source, such as a light bulb. This circuit will consist of a parallel circuit because multiple light bulbs will be used to see how many light bulbs the generator can power. A watt-hour meter will measure the amount of electricity this machine generates.
One consistently increasing problem in our country today is the lack of quality put into manufactured goods. An example of this is seen in many food products sold commercially such as foods containing probiotics. Our country, among many others, has set an absurdly low standard for evaluating and testing probiotic foods on the market today. Therefore something needs to be done to be able to prove to consumers that they are not just paying for the supposed ingredients in a product; but that they are indeed there. My project is to test for the presence, and quantity, of probiotics in a designated food product said to contain probiotics (yogurt, frozen yogurt). I will carry-out this experiment by placing a color indicator in the food sample which will turn green to indicate lactic acid – formed when probiotics are present in the food. From here I will find the amount of probiotics at the start of experimentation and then use this as a control for the testing. After I have an idea of the amount at the start, the sample will undergo an environmental change (extreme heat or cold, centrifugation). After the sample has undergone this environmental change I will test again for the amount of probiotics available in the food sample. This testing will be beneficial because it has a practical application in identifying the viability of probiotics in a food product after it has undergone environmental changes, similar to those it will encounter during manufacturing. Consumers will now be able to purchase products based on the true amount of probiotics inside and not just by the fancy advertising the companies can do. Being able to know this information will allow the consumers to purchase products based on the amount of probiotic intake they need for the various benefits probiotics contain.
One consistently increasing problem in our country today is the lack of quality put into manufactured goods. An example of this is seen in many food products sold commercially such as foods containing probiotics. Our country, among many others, has set an absurdly low standard for evaluating and testing probiotic foods on the market today. Therefore something needs to be done to be able to prove to consumers that they are not just paying for the supposed ingredients in a product; but that they are indeed there. My project was to test for the presence, and quantity, of probiotics in a designated food product said to contain probiotics (yogurt, frozen yogurt). I completed this experiment by placing a color indicator in the food sample which turned green to indicate lactic acid – formed when probiotics are present in the food. From here found the amount of probiotics at various dilutions of the food samples . Then the food samples underwent environmental changes – heated, cooled, and left open. After the sample underwent this environmental change tested again for the amount of probiotics available in the food sample. This testing is beneficial because it has a practical application in identifying the viability of probiotics in a food product after it has undergone environmental changes, similar to those it will encounter during manufacturing. Consumers will now be able to purchase products based on the true amount of probiotics inside and not just by the fancy advertising the companies can do. Being able to know this information will allow the consumers to purchase products based on the amount of probiotic intake they need for the various benefits probiotics contain.
One current subject that is yet to be completely proven is the existence of muscle memory and the full functions it encompasses. An area where muscle memory could especially be utilized is in the sport of basketball. Muscle memory can be applied towards a player’s shot with the aid of a basketball training apparatus. Testing for my project will consist of using the Sharp Shooter® to guide the subjects when shooting a basketball. I will then monitor the amount of shots made, out of fifty shots taken, for a period of three days using two cameras at different angles. With the video footage, I will be able to use the t-test equation to find the best possible angle for the ball to go through the net at. Also, with this footage I will be able to examine if the subject’s elbow placement has been corrected with the use of the Sharp Shooter®. If the Sharp Shooter® is successful in creating muscle memory, it can be used to help correct the form of basketball players across the globe.
An effective method for encapsulating Vitamin E in a film was tested for the treatment of topical blisters. Vitamin E is a natural solution for skin treatment that is easily available. Alginate films are nontoxic and relatively simple to make out of a simple sodium alginate and calcium chloride combined procedure. Vitamin E is fat-soluble, making the commonly used method for making alginate films impossible based on the reliance that the film contains a water-soluble chemical solution. 2% by weight sodium alginate solution is mixed with 24% methyl cellulose solution to create a solution. Vitamin E oil is added to the previous solution to produce an emulsified phase using high speed mechanical magnetic stirring. The emulsion is put in a syringe as means of filtering, and 2 microliters of the emulsion is dropped over 2.5% by weight calcium chloride in methanol on slide and an additional glass slide is put on top of the alginate and calcium chloride solution immediately after combination set to polymerize. The Vitamin E was quantified utilizing gas chromatography.
During the first half hour of their lives, neonates lose body heat rapidly. Promoting heat retention as well as allowing heat to reach the baby would benefit and help initiate neonatal thermoregulation earlier. There is limited research on alternative materials for effective thermoregulation of neonates. Prior to being placed under a radiant heater or incubator, babies are wrapped in a, typically cotton, blanket. The blanket not only provides the baby with comfort, but also helps it minimally retain heat and allow heat to permeate the surface. Emergency foil or Mylar blankets retain heat more efficiently than cotton blankets, but do not allow heat to penetrate them. Testing the normal blankets and the emergency blankets will provide for a temperature range to achieve better regulation of heat. In other words, an ideal amount of heat being lost per minute that will promote neonatal thermoregulation while at the same time allow the neonate to lose a little bit of heat to further encourage the regulation of body heat. Through the interweaving of the cotton and the Mylar blankets, a more efficient temperature control will be established. The foil blanket will retain some heat, and the cotton blanket should allow some heat in as well, providing for a balance that will help promote neonatal thermoregulation during the first half hour of life. The ability to hasten the regulation of heat loss and heat gain will efficiently higher the chances of the survival of the neonate.
In today’s science world, Carbon Nanotubes have risen to the peak of fame, both the qualities of high tensile strength and high conductivity making them prime candidates for many different fields. The biggest issue with these tubes, though, is the fact that they cannot easily be manufactured to specific standards. Since their discovery in 1991, scientists world wide have been searching for different ways of perfecting the creation of Carbon Nanotubes. One technique is called Chemical Vapor Deposition which involves extremely high temperatures to create the Carbon Nanotubes. Using different kinds of surfaces has lead to a different growth pattern within the Carbon Nanotubes, some surfaces even creating Carbon Nanotube coils (springs). In this project, Carbon Nanotubes were created and, through the use of an Indium Tin Oxide coated surface, the Carbon Nanotubes formed traditional tubes and Springs
The LL601 rice is a variety developed by Bayer Crop Science in the late 1990’s . This variety was engineered, by Bayer Crop Science, to be tolerant to Liberty Link herbicide. The DNA of the LL601 variety contains a bacterial gene which creates phosphinothricin acetyl transferase proteins. The PAT proteins provide the rice with resistance to glufosinate ammonium, the active ingredient in the Liberty Link herbicide. In 2006, this experimental variety of rice contaminated the supply of commercial rice within the United States. After the contamination scare, LL601 rice was never deregulated.
This study investigated whether or not the LL601 rice is still within the commercial supply of rice within the country. A negative control (water) and specimens of commercial rice were collected. After DNA extraction, each of the samples went through PCR, polymerase chain reaction. To start the PCR, certain primers were added to each of the samples. The primers targeted the desired DNA sequence, the PAT gene, and amplified it (if the target DNA was present). Once PCR was complete, the results were further analyzed through electrophoresis.
Once the samples were placed in the lanes of the agarose gels and then put through electrophoresis, the gels were observed and analyzed. The agarose gels containing the samples combined with the LL601 primers contained no DNA bands. Thus, it was determined that the rice samples collected did not contain the LL601 gene.
Tendons are the connective fascia linking muscles to bones and cartilage. They are composed of mostly tenocytes and collagen I. However, since they receive little blood and nutrition, they are likely to be strained and sometimes ruptured. Current research on regrowth of tendons is limited to tendon cell cultures, which allow for advancement of studies, however, on a smaller scale. Research done currently is on incubating tendon cell cultures to measure the amount of recovery, differences in material quality upon recovery, and factors that improve both of those studies. It may be possible to incubate tendons on a full scale to test factors in a more real life setting while avoiding the risk of performing on a person who might be injured by the experimentation. This project will test an environment and nutrition for chicken tendons, which are similar to those of humans, for sustainability of life in the tendons and growth in wounds. The tendons will be tested in a carbon dioxide rich atmosphere and poor oxygen to prevent growth of bacteria. The tendons will be given nutrition consisting of vitamin C, chondroitin, an element such as manganese or copper, and amino acids. A uniform incision will be made in all experiments, and growth throughout the incision will be measured after determined intervals.
Superconductors are materials which conduct electricity with zero resistance. These materials can be utilized in computers in order to create more efficient circuitry. However, in order for superconductors to work, they must reach extremely low temperatures, nearing absolute zero. This becomes a problem, as the means of cooling materials to the proper temperature can be expensive and complicated. Instead of developing a more efficient cooling system, this project deals with creating a more efficient cooling environment. Instead of cooling a computer in the normal atmosphere, it was cooled inside a vacuum. The vacuum was hypothesized to be a better environment due to the fact that there would be less particles in the system, meaning there would be less residual heat from gaseous particles vibrating. To test this hypothesis, a computer was cooled using a liquid cooling system, and the processor temperature was measured in the hardware management screen of the Basic Input/Output System. This temperature was taken at five minute intervals for fifteen minutes while the computer was in normal state, wrapped in the sealing material, and inside a vacuum. The data showed that in the control, or normal setting, the temperature increased twice as much as it did in a vacuum setting. Thus, it can be concluded that cooling in a vacuum is more efficient than cooling in standard atmospheric conditions.
The video gaming industry is becoming more and more popular as new technologies further advance the quality and playability of the new games coming out. As new technologies are produced, new software is made to create better, smoother, and more playable games. To further my interest in video game art and design, I plan on using a free online software called blender to work on and create digital renders, character models, and other such things. Blender is a simple software, generally easier to use than others open to the public, and free. This makes it a prime candidate for me to practice with and learn the basics of. Should an understanding of this software be developed, I hope to move on to Unreal Development Kit, a more advance software that is available to anyone who wishes to use it. Tutorials to use this software and learn basics of creating different objects such as models, animations, and other such things are readily available and it is my hope to use these to develop and understanding of what working in the gaming industry will feel like and to better prepare myself for having to use similar software in the future.
Arsenic is a natural occurring mineral found in soil, bedrock and water. It is used to preserve wood, to make glass and also used to make other medals. It has no odor or taste and is very poisonous, it is in soil around wells and gets into drinking water wells that poisons anyone who drinks the water contaminated with it. The purpose of this project is to develop a working, and cheap water filter using charcoal and a sand/iron mixture to remediate the arsenic levels in water to make the water safe for drinking use. Safe arsenic consumption levels are lower than 10ppb (parts per billion) the water used to test the filter has arsenic levels over 500ppb. The filter is a two step filter system that is constructed out of PVC, the first step is the sand/iron mixture that is 300gs of sand and 12 iron tablets broken up and mixed in with the sand then the water runs down to a sheet of fiberglass screen then into 300gs of charcoal to another sheet of fiberglass screen and through a sheet of cheese cloth then the water goes into a large beaker to collect the water.
Please use this abstract instead of the one I posted before this.
This projects purpose is to develop and test a working, and cheap two-step water filter using using charcoal and a sand/iron mixture to remediate the arsenic levels in water to make the water safe for drinking use. The current methods of arsenic filtration are not effective enough to make the drinking water safe for consumption or are to expensive for the people in the areas were the filters are needed to afford. Safe arsenic consumption levels are lower than 10ppb (parts per billion) the water used to test the filter has arsenic levels of 500ppb. Carbon (charcoal briquettes) and a Iron and Sand mixture. The first step of the filtration system is the Iron and Sand mixture. The water runs through the mixture going down into the second step which is broken up charcoal briquettes. In between steps there are flow restrict that slow down the water giving the first and second steps time to filter out the arsenic. At the end of the filtration system the water flows through a sheet of cheese cloth that cleans up the water from the charcoal making it clear, and finally the water runs into a large beaker for collection. The affects of this method of filtration system show to be effective and remediate the levels of arsenic by 90% to 99% making the levels of arsenic safe for consumption.
The diffraction of light occurs when light bends around objects that are in its way. The project I will be conducting is the process of laser light passing through copper sulfate crystals. In this project I will be looking to see if copper sulfate crystals will cause laser to diffract. In order to see if the light diffracts I will be creating my own (quality) copper sulfate crystals (they will be created by mixing water and copper sulfate into a super-saturated solution, then left for crystallization). Once created the crystals are to be taken into a dark, windowless room. Then Helium: Neon laser light will be shined through the crystal; if any of the laser’s light is diffracted I will be able to tell because the light which changes direction will appear on the object placed in front of it, in this case poster board. One can tell if light diffracts because it will form an up and down dotted line pattern on the surface in which it is shined on. I will be using Joseph von Fraunhofer’s law of diffractions, , to calculate the spacing between the atoms that causes the light to diffract.
Jared Schulman is a sophomore at Oxford High School. He joined the Applied Research class at OHS to further deepen his understanding in the field of genetics, which he is very interested in, and based this year’s project on. Jared is an all year competitor in the sport of wrestling, as well as a holder of the varsity 145 weight class spot during the school’s wrestling season. In addition, he is a member of Oxford High School’s boy’s soccer team. He is the treasurer of the sophomore class representatives and a life scout, very close to attaining the rank of eagle, in Boyscout Troop 65 Oxford/Seymour. In the future, Jared plans to pursue a productive career in the culinary, liberal arts, or medical sciences field.
Throughout the past 20 years, the field of biologically enhanced agriculture through genetic mutation has experienced a steady climb. The most “tainted” crop affected by this steady climb is corn also known as maize. A staple food, not only in the U.S., but the entire world, maize comprises almost 2/5 of the average adult’s food intake. In addition to individual consumption, Corn has also been called a staple in worldwide economy, with corn derivatives being found in almost all processed and/or prepackaged food. In fact, if you were to look in your pantry right now, chances are that most of the boxed goods have “Corn _____” written in the ingredients section of the nutrition label.Combine the massive economical support provided by maize with the new-wave of organic living, and there is definite potential for the birth of an extremely successful “super-crop”. But what if the so called organic maize sold to unknowing consumers wasn’t actually organic? My research project is focused on determining the true status of commercial maize, is it organic or not.The main genetic mutation which is seen in falsely marked batches of agricultural maize is the use of the Bt (Bacillus Therugus) gene , a synthetically birthed biological modifier created naturally in maize crops through the synthetic activation of a certain gene T987. The protein, originally produced by Novartis Inc. was never intended to be released in to mainstream commerce, nor was it authorized to be sold commercially by the FDA. The gene is used to increase crop hardiness and reduce, not abolish, the use of pesticides. The use of the gene, however, renders corn comprised of it, inorganic – regardless of the exclusion of pesticides enabled by its use. The original corn genome has been altered, therefore rendering it in-organic; not to mention un-stable.Through the use of PCR testing, or Polymerase Chain Reaction testing, I will attempt to isolate the Bt gene in 3 samples of maize collected from within 15 miles of the base of research, Oxford High School. All collection sites will be local farms selling corn which is claimed to be organic. In doing so, I will attempt to prove the corn sold to consumers by the local farms which has been labeled as organic is actually inorganic.Support for research provided by Oxford High School.
The purpose of this project is to synthesize and simplify the theories of special and general relativity and their relation to motion, light, and time. The project will provide visuals and descriptions in layman’s terms utilizing the mathematical framework that hypothetically defines the structure of the universe and the activity and forces of the cosmos.
Everything in the universe consists of matter that is held together by different forces. These forms of energy have individual set of principles which describe how they behave according to nature. These laws of the mechanics of the cosmos are complex, yet some concepts that are difficult to grasp can be simplified for better comprehension. The general theory of relativity and the principles of quantum mechanics are two theories that describe the forces of the universe. The general theory of relativity characterizes the technicalities of matter on the largest proportions; it describes forces such as gravity in relation to objects on the cosmic scale. Quantum mechanics, however, describe how substances work on the atomic level. These two principles are accurate, but they are inconsistent when compared. The laws that describe the forces in general relativity are no longer true when applied to molecular objects, and vice versa. General relativity illustrates the framework and creation of the universe and the important role gravity takes in every matter such as the shape of space, properties of light, and activity of time. Quantum mechanics help define the counterparts that complete the whole picture; every electrical impulse behind a tiny particle that makes up the earth and the space around it give scientists a better understanding of the phenomena that occur on a day to day basis. The concept of these controversial theories can be simplified by references to motion, light, and time to help people grasp the ideas presented and see the mathematical elegance of the universe.
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