Definition of terms

Author: Frank LaBanca, Ed.D.

Make a list of ten important jargon terms that relate to your project. Provide a defintion that is accessable to others who would be interested in your project.

20 Responses to “Definition of terms”

  1. Alex Albritton Says:

    Genetic Drift- Is the random changes in the genetic diversity of a population.

    Bottleneck Effect- Is when a disaster of some sort kills or other wise prevents the majority of a population from reproducing decreasing the genetic diversity of a population.

    Homozygous- Having two of the same allele at a specific location on a chromosome.

    Heterozygous- Having two different alleles at the same location on a chromosome.

    Allele frequency- The relative frequency of a certain allele in a population.

    Gene pool- Is the sum of all genetic information carried by the members of a population.

  2. Allison C Says:

    Gel electrophoresis: a method used to separate macromolecules (in this case DNA) based on physical characteristics such as size and shape.

    PCR: (Polymerase chain reaction) Used to amplify a specific region of DNA in order to make enough copies to be adequately tested.

    Restriction enzymes: A group of enzymes that catalyze the separation of DNA at certain sites, producing fragments.

    DNA polymerase: An enzyme that aids in DNA replication. It “reads” one DNA strand and synthesizes a complementary strand, starting from the primers.

    Thermal cycler: Laboratory apparatus used in PCR. It runs long cycles of pre-programed heating and cooling.

    Primers: Nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA polymerase to begin replication.

    Biodiversity: Variation of life forms in an ecosystem. Often used to measure the health of environments and their native organisms.

    Genotype vs phenotype: Genotype is the specific genetic makeup of an organism in the form of DNA. It codes for the phenotype, which is the physical appearance of that trait.

    DNA extraction: Procedure to remove DNA from other tissue and cell organelles.

    Rhizomes: Underground horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out shoots to bud new plants.

  3. jason h Says:

    · One-way glass– Glass with a thin reflected coating on one side with lets some light through, but some is reflected away. You can see through it if is dim, you see a reflection if it is light.
    · Lumen– The unit used to measure light intensity.
    · Medium– A substance light hit and is transmitted through. Light is both reflected and refracted when it hits a different medium then the one it is already in.
    · Angle of incidence– The angle between the incident ray and the normal.
    · Incident ray– The beam of light coming from the light source.
    · Normal– imaginary line perpendicular to the reflective surface.
    · Angle of reflection– The angle between the normal and reflected ray. It is always equal to the angle of incidence.
    · Reflected ray– The beam of light after it bounces off the reflected surface.

  4. Crystal Y Says:

    NTU- nephelometric turbidity units

    hexamethylenetetramine (hexamine)- white crystalized powedered that is soluable in water

    nephelometer- device used to measure turbidity.

    splashcam- camera used in this experiment to take pictures of the chicken, chicken bone, and the wrench in different salinity of water.

    Oxygen toxicity- breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressure that damages cells

    eelgrass- aquatic plant in freshwater called tapegrass

    Eurasian milfoil- aggressive aquatic plant that can impare boating, swimming, and fishing.

  5. scott r Says:

    Salvelinus frontinalis: brook trout
    Macro invertebrates: aquatic insects usually in the larva stage.
    Peltoperlidea: The roach like stone fly. It is a shredder and has a 0 water tolerance.
    Crustaceans: They are either clams or muscles. They play a role in cleaning the water and are a good sign of water quality.
    Thorax: Middle section of the macro invertebrate; usually where the gills are found.
    Abdomen: The last end part of the macro invertebrate. This is where the tail can be found and is a key to identify species. They also can have gills here.
    Hybridization: The cross breeding between native and non-native species.
    Dissolved oxygen: The amount of oxygen in the water the trout have to breathe.
    Foki: The primer I have chosen to use during the starch gel electrophoresis.
    Salmo trutta: Brown trout being introduced, causing non-native species a loss of habitat.

  6. Albritton continued Says:

    Population- is a group of individuals living in the same geographical area and sharing a common gene pool.
    Genetic Distance- Is the measure of dissimilarity of genetic material between different species or individuals of the same species.
    Mutation- Changes in an organisms DNA
    Recessive- An allele that does not produce a characteristic trait when paired with a dominant trait.

  7. matthew berk Says:

    waste vegatable oil-the raw material equivalent to straight oil in the production of petrol-diesel.

    transesterification-the prosess of alkoxy and ester compounds being changed with the compounds in another alcohol using an acid or a base.

    viscosit-the ammount of stress a liquid substance can stand befor it will break down

    methoxide-an organic salt that in its pure fourm is a white powder.

    alkoxide-an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxogen

  8. maricate c Says:

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls- Man made compounds characterized with two phenyl groups and 1-10 chlorine atoms. These compounds can take the form of a viscous liquid or yellow tasteless, odorless crystal; such congeners are non-flammable, chemically stable and have low water solubility and high boiling points.

    Congeners- These are organisms within the same genus; related chemicals or an element in the same group of the periodic table; in genetics they are known as organisms with similar genomes. In this project the 209 congeners of PCBs are related chemicals.

    Pseudomonas- A gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil or on the surface of plants.

    BioSep beads- These are spherical in shape and 3-4 mm in diameter, characterized by high density, highly porosity and by having an internal surface area larger than 600 square meters per gram; composition of the beads breaks down to 25% aramid polymer (Nomex) and 75% powdered activated, at a carbon porosity of 75%

    General Electric Plant- GE is located on the Housatonic River in Pittsfield Massachusetts. The plant is responsible for the PCB contamination along the Housatonic River; GE historically made use of and dumped PCB waste into the local aquatic environment from their transformer division

    Housatonic Floodplain- It is the area of the Housatonic River ranging from western Massachusetts into Fairfield, Connecticut; this area is predicted to have on average a PCB concentration of 1 ppm

    Bacteria Micro-plating Technique- This is a technique used to identify separate bacterial colonies on a specific agar. In these experiments Pseudomona Agar was used to isolate the colonies of Pseudomonas and decrease the growth of other bacteria. The process spreads small increments (5-10 micro-liters) of liquid soil samples across the plate of Pseudomona Agar.

    Bacteria Streaking Technique- This is a technique that follows the Micro-plating in order to further identify and isolate a bacterium. The process involves spreading small amounts of colony growth from Micro-plates on Pseudomona Agar in a horizontal motion. The growth from this technique is a more specific and identifiable sample of a particular bacterial species.

    Aroclor- This is the marketed name for PCBs and is commonly used when referring to PCB contamination. The name was created by a major North American producer, Monsanto, but GE also used a similar trade name, Pyranol. Common Aroclors include Aroclor 1254 and 1242.

    Catalysis- The process of acceleration or decelerating a function by means of a catalyst (decreases the activation energy of a chemical reaction). This, along with bacterial degradation, is a possible treatment to PCBs; in this case the catalyst is high heat.

  9. Grant Kurtz Says:

    Java: a programming language used to create programs. java is one of many other programming languages used in making electrical appliances that will be used in many different ways.

    Image recognition: a program that compares two similar pictures and focuses on the similarities of the two pictures to determine a positive match or not. This process involves looking at the individual pixels that make up the picture.

    Boolean variable: a boolean varialbe is a variable that returns only one of two things, either a 1 or a 0. a 0 indicates a true statement, while a 1 indicates a false or error statement. After the image recognition process, the program will output one of these. This can then be used to open or keep a door closed depedning on the response.

    iris dilator: part of the eye that help in acting like a muscle to dilate or shrink your pupil for you. The iris is unlike any other iris, even in twins, and in your left and right eyes. This is the part that will be scanned.

    pixels: pixels are just a display of color. as one pixel, you cant seee much, however, when these are aligned into a grid, extremely small, and of varying colors, you get what you see on a screen. Different cameras have varying resolution amounts, and can give you varying pictures with even wider detail quality.

    resolution: resolution are pixels (height) * pixels (length). This amount defines the area, in pixels, that your screen displays pictures. In general, a period is composed of about 4-8 pixels, while a computer screen maybe by 800 x 600, or 1200 x 760. These resolutions will play a major role in how the program will be able to compare a similar picture or not.

    variables: variables, just like in science project, are used in programming languages in similar ways. A variable in java, however, stores information about something. For example, there is a variables that will hold only numbers, only a letter, only pictures, etc etc. Using the right variables for the correct situation will determine how a mathematical equation will be displayed or even calculated. To be able to isolate the pupil, and the iris a mathematical equation will be needed to help cut out unnessecary parts, and increase comparison likeability while decreasing the chance for error.

    C++, Ruby, and other programming languages: Although the way the different languages are written, and done, math and the final output won’t change at all. The only difference in different languages is how the coding is done. However, from what I have seen, there is no advantage to using C++ over Java, or vice versa.

    blurring, sharpening, streching, etc: all these methods are usually done in photoshop or even paint with ease. However, the program will have to first determine a camera’s resolution (or be told in advanced) and then compare that to the resolution of the picture that was originally taken to assure they are similar. If not, the program will have to use these techniques to make the pictures as close enough to each other that a comparison can be made, while not increasing errors.

    freeware: Free ware is software that is avaible to the general public. The coding of any software that is freeware means that is can be modified legally, as long as the version someone else made is also freeware.

  10. Hood W Says:

    Electrode – Is an electrical conductor used to make contact between the metallic part of a circuit and a non-metallic part of the circuit such as water or air.

    Anode – Is a positive electrode, which means it accepts electrons from an external source.

    Cathode – Is a negative electrode, which means it donates electrons.

    Reduction reaction – Is a chemical reaction in which the negative charge of a molecule, atom, or ion is increase because it receives electrons.

    Joule – One joule is the work done or energy required to exert a force of one newton for a distance of one meter and is aproximatley equal to 2.7778 ×10−4 watt-hour.

    Amperage – The speed at which electrons flow through a circuit. Measured in amps and a small amperage of .

    Voltage – Or electrical potential is the measurement of difference in electrical charge between two points.

    Anaerobic – Means without oxygen.

    PEM – Proton Exchange Membrane is a membrane that water, air, and electrons cannot flow through but hydrogen ions can.

    Substrate – the surface or medium on which an organism is attached or grows.

  11. Ivan Says:

    Lysosome-cell unit containing enzymes responsible for destroying a cell when it malfunctions.

    Apoptosis- natural, genetically encoded cell death caused by lysosome rupture.

    Transmission line- a linear circuit designed to transmit a packet of electrical energy, modifying its shape or retaining it along the way

    Blumlein Pulser- A transmission line that generates a pulse the speed of which is not determined by a capacitor discharge, but by a relative drop in potential between two capacitors.

    Capacitor- an “electrostatic” low impedance energy storage device that consists of a dielectric sandwiched between conductive electrodes to store energy.

    Impedance- Resistance when applied to an alternating current circuit

    Tissue culture- an artificial, in vitro growth of animal cells in a controlled environment.

    Laminar flow hood- an outward blowing filtered air hood that pushes out contaminants in the air around the work area with a high flow of filtered air

    Capacitive coupling- electricity conducted through a dielectric by means of an electric field set up through changing potential, and the basis of the AC conducting property of capacitors

    Oscilloscope- device used for visually displaying electric waveforms.

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  19. Jembei Says:

    Nicely done Sue! Like you I am not comfortable at all in front of a cmreaa, but I think everyone in broadcasting should be forced to do it at least once, just so they get an appreciation of how hard it is to look natural while reading a prompter, having someone yap in your ear, watch for time cues etc etc I know you have lots of pro lighting, sound and cmreaa gear at your disposal, and apparently elected not to use them. I like the home made look you were going for, but I think you could have kicked it up a notch by using a bug mike and/or picked a room that was a little less live . May I also suggest that you add just enough lighting so it does not look artificial, but allows you to separate you from the background and model your face a bit.IMHO part of your business is video production, so you should treat every picture and video clip you do like it’s part of your sample reel.

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