MidTerm Exam

Author: Frank LaBanca, Ed.D.

Write an abstract discussing your project. The abstract should be succinct, proofed, and between 150-250 words. Post your abstract here so other students may read it to prepare questions for your oral exam on January 24th.

Your exam grade will be based on:
1.) your written abstract
2.) your responses to student questions
3.) questions you ask other students

Use the following links and samples to assist in producing a high-quality abstract.

Writing an abstract. Click here

Practical Tips for Science Writing. Click here


Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Long Island Sound’s Great Meadows Marsh
Bioaccumulation of heavy metals is amplified with increased trophic levels. A variety of species from Long Island Sound’s Great Meadows Marsh were sampled for heavy metals through a metallothionine quantification protocol. Metallothionine is a universally heavy metal binding enzyme that catalyzes with heavy metals found in the organism. A mathematical model was developed to predict expected levels of heavy metals in higher trophic levels.

The Effects of MTBE on Well Water in Stamford
This project involved testing Stamford-area artesian wells for Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether, or MTBE. MTBE is a substance added to gasoline in order to reduce tailpipe emissions and to increase gasoline octane ratings. MTBE gets into well water supplies by way of gasoline spills, gas-line leaks in the ground and by means of the natural emission of MTBE into the environment through automobile tailpipes.
Samples were collected directly from faucets in homes mostly located in the 06903 and 06902 zip codes. The water samples were assayed for water hardness, alkalinity, pH and conductivity. In addition, samples were tested for traces of MTBE using GC-MS. Next, the sites were mapped using G.I.S software, and attempts were made to find correlation between the location of the sites and the human impact on the area surrounding the sites.

Effects of Room Acoustics on the Generated Sounds of Percussion
This project is aimed towards the effects of various environments on percussion instruments’ sound and performance. Each environment exhibits reverb capabilities with various generated sounds of percussion. Each type of percussion instrument will display different decibel levels when played at various distances from a central location within the environment. Through the use of a Sound Level Meter and various analysis programs, both the decibel levels and effects of reverb of the marching snare drum, tenor drums, bass drums, and crash cymbals, will be tested and analyzed to determine which instrument creates the greatest levels for both reverb and decibel readings, as well as which environment is most conducive to high volumes and sound resonance.
The results will be compared to existing data concerning the effects of decibel levels and reverb on the human ear. Hearing loss can result from extended exposure to high decibel levels, and through the comparison, determining the safest environment for playing percussion instruments will be possible.

30 Responses to “MidTerm Exam”

  1. Dan Bunger Says:

    Geobacter sulfurreducens is an anaerobic bacterium that has the unique ability to use ferric iron as an electron receptor. The G. sulfurreducens has the ability to reduce Fe(III) into Fe(II) and thereby has major implicit value to the environment. However, the practicality and effectiveness of applying Geobacter to environmental bioremediation and environmental characteristic adjustments relies on several variables. Some of these variables include temperature, oxygen present in the environment, Fe(III) present in the environment, and pH. By testing pH, temperature, and the amount of Fe(III) present, a greater understanding of the optimal conditions of Geobacter is gained. When the optimal conditions are know, Geobacter can be placed in soil under those optimal conditions to determine the percent of Fe(III) reduced and range of effectiveness. When this is known, the practicality and effectiveness of its application can also be determined. If it is shown that Geobacter reduces only a negligible amount of ferric iron in normal soil conditions, then its real-world application in the future looks to be unlikely. However, if just the opposite is true, more research can be done to be able to utilize Geobacter in real-world environments.

  2. alex albritton Says:

    In my project I am looking at the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on bacteriophage reproductive capabilities. Ultraviolet light is continually seeping through our atmosphere and bombarding us it is also starting to be experimented with for sterilization uses. As such it is important that we understand the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on microorganisms like Bacteriopahges and other viruses. It is already known that ultraviolet light is capable of affecting skin cell DNA adversely. Ultraviolet irradiation excites the molecules of skin cell DNA and causes covalent bonds to form between adjacent thymine bases. This creates some thing called thymidine dimers which can cause distortions in the DNA helix as well as stalls in replication and other mutations. I will be looking to cause the same type of mutation in bacteriophage DNA. This will be achieved by exposing bacteriophage to varying amounts of ultraviolet irradiation both before and after infection of bacteria.

  3. Sarah Peck Says:

    In REM sleep, the brain is very close to its waking state in the amount of action, thought and cognition that occurs, but it has been studied that it is easier to wake a slow-wave sleeper than a REM sleeper. Why is this? What makes this occur? How much will the brain respond to its environment when it is almost as active as normal, but is unconscious? Which environmental factors are most potent in activating sensory areas of the brain while unconscious? Many people wake up to auditory stimuli, but are biologically programmed to awake with the sun and light to protect themselves. Which is more effective? During a fire, would odor be enough to awaken a sleeping person? Testing could be done by using a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine and an electrocardiogram together and using an electroencephalogram to detect the changing of sleep stages. At each different sleep stage, reactions to the varied stimulus would show which stimulus was most effective and at which stage optimal environmental awareness happens.

  4. Alex FLEMing Says:

    What are the effects of muscle manipulation on a drummer’s speed power and endurance? Muscle manipulation includes stretching, warming-up, long-term conditioning, and using different muscle groups in different ways. Speed is a general term used to describe the velocity of the drumstick, usually measured in meters per second and the acceleration rates (there are several) at different sections of a single stroke. The term power is used to describe the muscle’s ability to exert as much force as possible or as little force as possible while maintaining a series of evenly placed consecutive strokes. Endurance is self explanatory; the drummer’s ability to play for extended periods of time. Several points of background information are necessary to understand in order to explain why and how muscle manipulation (such as stretching and warming-up) improves a drummer’s overall playing ability. Examples of background information include lactic acid, neurofibrils, myofibrils, type I and type II muscle fibers, and the antagonistic pairs of voluntary muscles. The main goal for the project is testing how effective stretching and warming-up is before playing, understanding that material, and then creating an improved or modified way of conditioning the muscles to enable enhanced speed, power, and endurance (while playing single strokes).

  5. Sam Says:

    In the United States, labeling of genetic modification in food
    products is not required and the percent of Americans who consume genetically modified food on a daily basis can be high. The most common
    genetically modified food on the market is genetically modified soy,
    especially Roundup Ready Soy.Roundup Ready Soy created by the Monsanto Company was designed to be resistant to the herbicide gyphosate. The inserted gene sequence, known as the transgene may come from another unrelated plant, or from a completely different species such as viruses, bacteria or animals. The objective of this experiment is to determine whether genetically modified products can be detected in supermarket soy-based foods. Using the PCR technique, DNA will be collected from common supermarket food products containing soy. After the DNA is extracted using a DNeasy Plant Mini Kit, the DNA strand will be tested with four different primers, which are all present in genetically modified food. The occurrence of genetically modification in common soy-based food products sold in supermarket will be determined.

  6. Dayton Horvath Says:

    There are many properties of electromagnetic waves and their interaction with different media that can be explored with various experiments. This experiment entails the effect of different concentrations of sugar water on the path of a laser pointer beam. There is a density gradient in the sugar water if it is not stirred excessively. The refractive index of the solution at different levels in the tank made of Lexan will be affected because of the different densities of the solution at each level. This gradual change in the refractive index will cause the laser beam to refract at different angles through the solution. The beam will then refract towards the bottom of the tank where it will completely internally reflect (CIR). The CIR in this experiment should occur at the boundary between the Lexan and air media, where the light will reflect at angles below a critical angle. The concentration of sugar dissolved in a certain amount of water is the independent variable and should produce varying results. These results are based on where and how much the laser beam bends during each trial, in addition to the number of CIRs. The data should show a connection between the concentration of sugar in the solution and the degree of change in the laser beam.

  7. Harriet Morgan Says:

    Regeneration is the ability to restore lost or damaged tissues, organs or limbs. Regeneration is common among invertebrates but far less common in vertebrates. The regeneration period is usually 1-2 months depending upon conditions and food availability. The brittle star, Dwarf Amphipholis Squamata, is able to regenerate and it is bioluminescent. Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism due to a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy. For this experiment Dwarf A. Squamata will be kept in a controlled environment. The brittle stars are kept in a refrigerator in a glass container. The container is filled with salt water at a temperature between 40-45 degrees fahrenheit. Using image analyzing software, pictures will be taken and analyzed comparing the amount of bioluminescence as the limb begins to regenerate. Image analyzing software can measure the area of the limb which is bioluminescent. With the area of bioluminescence it is possible to compare one picture to another. Results will be compared back to the original picture and one will see if the brittle star has regenerated its ability to bioluminesce in the newly regenerated limb.

  8. Laura Koscomb Says:

    West Nile Virus is a sometimes fatal flavivirus that first appeared in the US in 1999. When West Nile Virus appeared in our country not only was there a human outbreak but there was also an equine outbreak in the eastern half of the country. This virus is transmitted by arthropods, which are mostly insects, specifically by mosquitoes. The most common transmitter of West Nile Virus is a mosquito called Culex Pipiens, which is more commonly known as the Northern House Mosquito. This virus is really meant to be transmitted from mosquito to bird however mosquitoes also bite humans and horses which are dead end hosts since the virus can only be transmitted by blood to blood contact. At this time there is not a vaccine for humans to protect against West Nile Virus however there are two vaccines for horses that are on the market. By collecting samples of blood from a group of horses that have not been vaccinated it would be possible to see how long the virus is present in the body. It will also be helpful to see the genetic differences in the strains of West Nile Virus in order to find some kind of pattern. If some sort of pattern is discovered then it will be possible to change the vaccines according to the strain that is most present in each area.

  9. Luke Fernandes Says:

    Cystic Fibrosis is a one of the most deadly diseases in the world. The research done by the researchers at Yale found out that Curcumin, a major constitute of Turmeric, treats Cystic Fibrosis. Curcumin has been extracted from Turmeric numerous times. Using dichloromethane, hexanes, and processes such as reflux, suction filtration, and TLC, Curcumin can be extracted efficiently. 20g of Turmeric yielded approximately 5g of Curcumin. However, can curcumin be extracted efficiently in a microwave? A reflux apparatus with a two flasks, one opened on two sides other opened at one, were used as well as a test tube and a rubber stopper. Curcumin dissolved in Dichloromethane will be inserted into the bottom flask then put in the microwave. To set up a reflux the top flask will be filled with ice. The ice will surround the test tube and condenses the vapors in it. To avoid excessive heating of the rubber stopper the reflux apparatus will be put into the microwave for 1 minute then removed from the microwave for 30 seconds.

  10. gabby nastri Says:

    Hurricanes are low-pressure systems, which generally form in the tropics. A low-pressure area is a region where the atmospheric pressure is the lowest with relation to the surrounding area. They are formed from tropical depressions, which are small weather disturbances. In order for a hurricane to form the sea surface temperature must be above 26.5 degrees Celsius. The moisture in the air above the warm water is the energy source for hurricanes. The water in which the hurricane is forming must have a depth of 50 meters. Also there must be a pre-existing weather disturbance, usually a tropical wave, which forms a tropical depression, which forms a hurricane. The wind wave tank being built will test the water temperature and wind speed during the formation of a hurricane. A small weather disturbance, tropical wave, will be created and the temperature and wind speed will be regulated. By changing these variables, the prime temperature and wind speed in the formation of a hurricane will be discovered.

  11. LaBanca Says:

    For those that continue to post . . . Things to avoid in abstract writing: AVOID PERSONAL PRONOUNS. AVOID QUESTIONS. Abstracts should be statements of facts.

  12. Sarah Gutbrod Says:

    In recent years the number of patients with severe peanut allergies has drastically increased. More children under the age of eight are forced to follow strict avoidance of the peanut protein or face anaphylactic shock at the smallest exposure. There are more advanced immunotherapy techniques for allergens including pollen and animal dander; however the body seems to react to food allergens in a considerably different way rendering these methods dangerous and ineffective. Therefore there has been a great pull in the research field for new approaches to the immunotherapy of food allergies, particularly the peanut. These immunotherapy techniques include an allergen vaccine based on peptide immunotherapy, anti-IgE immunotherapy, or DNA immunization as well as genetic modification of the peanut to remove the allergenic proteins. This project aims to determine today’s medical opinion on the plausibility and effectiveness of these new techniques by conducting semi-structured interviews with a random sampling of Connecticut allergists and pediatricians. The interviews will then be open and axial coded following grounded-theory qualitative analysis with the purpose of recognizing trends in the hope and confidence professionals have for the success of these immunotherapy techniques. The results will then be triangulated to determine whether there is a difference of opinion or consensus between primary source documentation, allergists and pediatricians. Although further research is needed for all new approaches, the results of this project will help to determine which technique should receive the most attention and be pushed for clinical use within a few years.

  13. drew taylor Says:

    Fundulus heteroclitus are a small minnows, also called mummichogs. They are exceptional indices of the environment, being numerous enough to not affect the population by collecting some for testing, and also high enough up the food chain to bioaccumulate both nutrition and toxins. Two samples of Fundulus heteroclitus were collected in the fall of 2005 from the Long Island Sound, one from Great Meadows Marsh in Stratford, and the other from Barn Island in Stonington. In order to compare the water quality of the two salt marshes, the fish will be tested using a transaminases assay, liver-somatic index, and condition index. With finding abnormalities in the mass of the fish compared to the length and mass of the liver, it will reflect the quality of the living environment. By testing for transaminases, which are excellent biomarkers of water quality because they are enzymes secreted into the liver when it sustains damage, the results will show if toxins are present in the water.

  14. Lauren Nemeth Says:

    Schizophrenia is a brain disease that affects many aspects of cognitive function. Schizophrenia affects up to 1% of the population, and these individuals suffer sever impairment in their daily functioning. Two-thirds are totally disabled, a significant number are homeless, and 10% will eventually commit suicide. A strong characteristic of schizophrenia is a reduced neuronal density in brains in which there is no evidence of gliosis, only signs of maldevelopment. People with schizophrenia show decreased total brain volume and increased size of the cerebral ventricles. F-MRIs have shown decreased activity in the frontal lobes of people with schizophrenia when they perform auditory oddball tasks, that is, simply listening to tones and filtering the one that does not belong, while analyzing the event-related potential. One of the most replicated findings in the neurobiology of schizophrenia is that the event-related potentials to auditory oddball stimuli are abnormal. Although event-related potentials provide strong conclusions regarding the time course of information processing, such studies are poor at characterizing the spatial location of these abnormalities. To address this issue, event-related f-MRI techniques will be used to explain the neural areas underlying target detection in schizophrenia. EEG data as well as f-MRI data will be analyzed after a patient with schizophrenia has performed a three-stimulus auditory oddball task. By using various software and analyzing techniques, the results should prove that schizophrenia is characterized by a widespread pathologic process affecting many cerebral areas, including cortical and subcortical circuits in the brain.

  15. jonathan bryant Says:

    Dipyrromethanes are one of the cofactors in the synthesis of porphyrins; porphyrins are quite aromatic compounds that have very specific yet important applications in biology and chemistry. For example, porphyrins can be used in photophysics and photodynamic therapy in the treatment of cancer. In 1960, MacDonald discovered a synthesis in the making of these dipyrromethanes that solved preceding scientists problem of pyrrole redistribution enabling scientists to make readily more porphyrins. This experiment will conduct a more modern variation of this synthesis, a one-step synthesis conducted in water, in the hopes of a pure aqueous solution of dipyrromethanes. This synthesis of β-free-dipyrromethanes has been shown to be a cheap, non-toxic, and environment friendly means of acquiring dipyrromethanes in a one-step procedure using pyrrole and carbonyl compounds. In doing so, this will further provide information which will be used to determine what variables could be changed in yielding an even higher percentage of dipyrromethanes and subsequently porphyrins.

  16. Laura Konkos Says:

    In December of 2003 a 4,550 gallon oil spill on the Fairfield Hills property contained the area and flowed into Deep Brook, a stream that is classified as a Class 1 Trout Fishing Area. A year later in December of 2004, 4,000 gallons of fuel leaked out of a mechanical failure in the Reed Intermediate School into the nearby Deep Brook stream. This stream feeds into the Pootatuck River, and the Housatonic, which is a tributary of the Long Island Sound. Although the area was quickly decontaminated, this project was designed in order to evaluate the long-term effects of the oil spill on the streams ecosystem. A total of 3 sites were selected for analysis, one upstream and two downstream. Benthic macroinvertebrates will be examined using DEP Bioassessment Protocol, as well as testing soil samples for residual hydrocarbons using single wavelength IR Spectrophotometer, and evaluations of the water chemistry through PH, watercolor, nitrates, and phosphates. Preliminary results indicate a higher concentration of residual hydrocarbons downstream.

  17. Kelly L Says:

    BEAM stands for biology, electronics, aesthetics and mechanics. BEAM technology is revolutionary for its biological and simple approach to robotics. BEAM robots function on a series of simple transistors and the nervous net, which is an analog system that solves real time control problems. The typical complicated expensive digital robots seen today function on a computer program labeled the neural net. BEAM robots are much easier and less expensive to create than robots that function on the neural net because they can be created out of recycled materials and require no computer programs. BEAM robots use the anatomy of insects and reptiles as the inspiration for the robots movements, considering the creatures’ capabilities to climb, swim and crawl. The movement capabilities of BEAM robots, however, are just beginning to be untapped. Different types of movement based on animal and human joints will be combined with different engineering technologies in fields such as hydraulics, magnetics and pneumatics. Results hope to yield more realistic and capable movements of joints in the robots.

  18. maricate conlon Says:

    Chitin is a nitrogenous carbohydrate and the second most abundant organic compound on earth. One major use of chitin is its bioremediation and purifying effect on wastewater and contaminated soil. Japanese scientists have found that chitin is effective on the clean up of metals and other organic compounds within water and soil, such as PCBs. With its strong positive charge, chitin can bind to many negatively charged heavy metals and macromolecules. Also, as a polymer it can form long chains which act as natural hooks to catch and coagulate the metals, organic compounds and contaminants from wastewater. Chitin acts as a chelate agent, a polydentate ligand, capable of occupying two or more sites in the coordination sphere (consisting of chitin and a heavy metal, aluminum). Samples of water and soil were contaminated with aluminum chloride. Three trials were conducted, first testing for aluminum in the control samples, and then testing for aluminum after applying the chitin substance. The chitin substance used was in the original natural form of arthropod shells, mainly a crushed form of lobster shells. Results were analyzed to evaluate whether chitin had a remediative effect on contaminated substances. Later, such data was applied and concluded to be similar to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Brownfield Batchelder Site, located at 44 Swamp Road, Newtown, Connecticut. Conclusions and aftermath include a new marketing and clean up strategy for the EPA Brownfield Site and the town of Newtown.

  19. Derek Says:

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical engine that converts the chemical energy of a fuel, such as hydrogen, and an oxidant, such as oxygen, directly into electricity. The main parts of a fuel cell are the electrodes for the fuel (anode), the oxidant (cathode), and an electrolyte to conduct ions between the two electrodes. The fuel cell can have many advantages because they can generate electric energy without combusting fuel. Some of these advantages include the fuel cell’s capability of being environmentally friendly and ability to operate with very high efficiency. The aim of this project is to see whether or not a fuel cell can power a simple household item, such as a remote control using different types of power sources, such as solar or heat energy.

  20. Rebecca Reed Says:

    A neural network is a processing device which uses computer algorithms in order to simulate thought processes in the human brain. Neural networks are used to complete many tasks that are beyond the thinking capabilities of a computer but beyond the computational abilities of a human. In this experiment, a series of neural networks will be trained to recognize characters. Components of these networks (neurons) will then be removed and the continuing functionality of each neural network tested. The first in this series of neural networks has been created and trained to recognize combinations of three different orientations of a line. The software, Easy Neural Network, was used to enter the data and training sets into a grid that could be recognized by the neural network. For this neural network, three inputs (one of each of the three lines) were entered as well as five training output sets, the desired results of combining the three input values. Four hidden units were also utilized by the neural network in order to process the input and calculate the output. After only 60 cycles (the periods during which the neural network compares its answer to the desired answer and modifies its output accordingly) the neural network was able to take any combination of the three lines and respond with the correct output. Lastly, the neural network will be tested for functionality after having one or more hidden neurons removed. Two to three more neural networks, increasing in complexity, will be tested using the same method.

  21. kendra o'connor Says:

    Human-manned missions to Mars have become a realistic goal and plan for NASA. One of the methods astronauts will need to use on Mars is growing their own food. Since they will not be able to bring up with them hundreds of pounds of soil, this experiment will test mainly soil compositions similar to Mars, as well as atmospheres. E.coli bacteria will be studied under environmental conditions similar to those of the planet Mars. The environment in which the bacteria will be grown has been constructed out of Nalgene bottles and a number of valve fixtures. They are filled with carbon dioxide gas, the atmosphere on Mars, and the E.coli bacteria will be grown on agar plates mixed with silicon dioxide and iron(III) oxide, the soil composition on Mars. The results will hopefully reveal whether or not is possible to grow E.coli in Martian soil and atmosphere, leading a step closer to missions to the red planet.

  22. Ivan Says:

    Hello, Sorry that this is late.

    This project is aimed at developing a device that, using plasma, consisting of hot ionized Argon atoms, will destroy bacterial cultures, one of the experiments involving Escheria Coli and the other involving Streptococcus Aureus. The device consists of an industrial plasma torch, a compressed Argon gas supply and a high voltage power supply. The power supply will establish an arc within the torch,
    which will be blown out of the nozzle with the argon, and at the disc containing the bacterial culture. The cultures will first be grown in a liquid nutrient broth medium overnight at 37 degrees Celcius, and then evenly smeared onto each glass disc. The discs will then be treated with the plasma at 1 cm away from the nozzle, first for 20 seconds, then 30, then 40, then 50, and then a minute. The discs will then be rolled on sterile broth petri dishes and grown overnight. The number of bacterial colonies which show up on the dish will be indicators of how effective the treatment was. The colonies will be counted and their numbers recorded, and the data analyzed for a trend as to the most effective parameters and whether the method works at all or if the bacteria totally survive it.

  23. Alex de Brantes Says:

    Biodiesel is a low cost, fuel efficient environmentally made fuel that could change the way people use fuel. Biodiesel is a sound substance to me because of one thing it is not good but great for the environment. It reduces most emissions by at least 50% and some others by 100%. Another thing that got me interested into this project is the science involved. The main process involved in creating Biodiesel is transesterfication. Transesterfication is the process of reacting a triglyceride molecule with an excess of alcohol in the presence of a catalyst (KOH, NaOH, NaOCN3, etc.) to produce glycerin and fatty esters. Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. They are the main constituents of vegetable oil and animal fats. On top of all this biodiesel produce glycerol as byproduct which can be used in making soap. Publicity is being made of biodiesel on mtv as well in most European countries all diesel cars come stock with a 20% diesel mix into diesel when you first buy the car. If more interest was created in the field it would probably spark a complete change into how people could approach creating new fuel efficient fuels and maybe oil would become less of a crisis in the world.

  24. treatment for toenail fungus Says:

    That was a incredible article,Maybe I might sign up to your rss.

  25. 150cc gas scooters Says:

    Useful report,I recently subscribed to your feed.

  26. Janie Says:

    We are a group of volunteers and opening a brand new scheme in our community.
    Your site provided us with helpful information to work on. You’ve performed an impressive job and our
    whole group will be grateful to you.

  27. best curcumin supplement cancer Says:

    My partner and i delight in, end in I came across exactly what I was interested in Best Curcumin Supplement Cancer. You could have finished my own 4 day time prolonged search! Goodness Thanks a lot male. Employ a fantastic time. Ok bye

  28. weight loss belt for men Says:

    It is a fact that nidora is entirely new for the people but this product for
    weight loss has been under observation and clinical test from last 20 years or even more
    time under the guideline of Dr. Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated
    and minimize bloating caused by water retention. A terrific technique to reduce weight loss belt for men will include slowly
    reducing the number of calories people consume daily.

  29. ios Says:

    Meanwhile, the “sea Bora a” high concern, high impact style game will also
    happy to provide an important opportunity to enhance the brand.
    You need to even be conscious from the ampere and voltage rankings that these devices function on and make
    sure that your clients purchase goods which will be suitable in their very own nations or locations
    of use. You kids will love to grip it which aspect they want to do.

  30. Maxwell Says:

    So, if you experience substantial hair thinning, be sure to check with your physician, and follow their advice regarding the use of medications.

Leave a Reply